In particular, they formulated the important principle of distinguishing between civilians and combatants, as well as between civilian objects and military targets. They also expanded the list of basic safeguards that apply to all persons in power of an opposing party. This agreement extended the protection described in the first convention to shipwrecked soldiers and other naval forces, including the special protection of hospital ships. The elaboration of the Geneva Conventions was closely linked to the Red Cross, whose founder Henri Dunant initiated international negotiations that dedicated the Convention for the Improvement of the Wounded in Time of War in 1864. This Convention provided for (1) the immunity of all treatment facilities for wounded and sick soldiers and their personnel from capture and destruction, (2) the impartial reception and treatment of all combatants, (3) the protection of civilians assisting the wounded, and (4) the recognition of the Red Cross symbol as a means of identifying persons and equipment covered by the Agreement, before. To overcome its fears, the ICRC organized a pre-conference of National Red Cross Societies in Geneva in September 1945 to examine conventions for the protection of war victims, followed by a conference of governmental experts in 1947. The latter should deal with the revision of the two existing Geneva Conventions on the “wounded and sick” and “Prisoners of War” and, above all, the preparation of a new Convention on the State and Protection of the Civilian Population in Time of War. .